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Islamophobia is a contrived fear or prejudice fomented by the existing Eurocentric and Orientalist global power structure. It is directed at a perceived or real Muslim threat through the maintenance and extension of existing disparities in economic, political, social and cultural relations, while rationalizing the necessity to deploy violence as a tool to achieve “civilizational rehab” of the target communities (Muslim or otherwise). Islamophobia reintroduces and reaffirms a global racial structure through which resource distribution disparities are maintained and extended.

Source: University of California, Berkeley: Center for Race and Gender


NGOs working on the issue

  • Washington Peace Center

Related Books

  • (Fear, Inc. The Roots of the Islamophobia Network in America)
  • (Islamophobia in Cyberspace)

Sources to Consult

1) “This newest body of work began over the summer of 2016 and is a direct response to the politicized images of American Muslims depicted as a plagued foreign diaspora”.

Source: Bennington, Mark. America 2.0. 2017, Private Collection, New York. 2 Feb. 2017.

2) This article from the Guardian outlines the anti-Muslim rhetoric potentially reponsible for the recent Quebec attack.

Source: Kassam, Ashifa. “‘Islamophobia killed Canadians’: anti-Muslim rhetoric blamed in Québec attack.” The Guardian, The Guardian, 31 Jan. 2017. 2. Feb. 2017.

3) Documentation regarding a U.S. Supreme Court case in which a Muslim was not hired at Abercrombie & Fitch because she wore a hijab.

Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Abercrombie & Fitch Stores, Inc. United States Supreme Court. 2015. United States Supreme Court. 2. Feb. 2017.

4) An article outlining the effects of anti-Muslim rhetoric in the 2016 U.S. Presidential election.

Source: Team, Bridge Initiative. “Islamophobia in the 2016 Elections.” Bridge, Georgetown University, 25 Apr. 2015. 2 Feb. 2017.

5) A Twitter profile dedicated discussing Islamophobia-related topics and news stories.

Source: @islamophobia (islamophobia). Twitter. 2 Feb. 2017

6) Biography of John L Esposito. Esposito is a “Professor of Religion and International Affairs and of Islamic Studies at Georgetown University”.

Source: “John L Esposito”, Georgetown University. 2 Feb. 2017.

7) A map indicating the locations of Islamophobia-related attacks in Europe.

Source: Centrum, Hirasa, et. al. “Islamophobia attacks in Europe.” Google Maps, Google, 2015. 2 Feb. 2017.

8) Working research paper about the effects if Islamophobia in politics.

Source: Beydoun, Khaled A., ‘Muslims Bans’ and the (Re)Making of Political Islamophobia (March 6, 2016).  Available at SSRN: 2 Feb. 2017.

9) Interview with artist that creates works associated with Islamophobia, including an American flag made of hijabs.

Source: Salhani, Justin. “This Artist Uses Her Work To Hold A Mirror Up To American Islamophobia.” ThinkProgress, ThinkProgress, 31 Mar. 2016. 2 Feb. 2017.

10) Research article about the correlation between Islamophobia and Islamic Extremism.

Source: Moten, Abdul R. “The West, Islam And The Muslim: Islamophobia And Extremism.” Southeast Asia Regional Centre for Counter-Terrorism (SEARCCT), Ministry of Foreign Affairs Malaysia. 2 Feb. 2017.

11) Course syllabus for class at the Fairfax Institute in which anti-Muslim rhetoric is discussed and analyzed.

Source: “Understanding Islamophobia in America Syllabus.” The Fairfax Institute, Fairfax Institute. 2 Feb. 2017.

12) Research article analyzing the use of the term Islamophobia and proposing a scientific definition of the term.

Source: Bleich, Erik. “What Is Islamophobia and How Much Is There? Theorizing and Measuring an Emerging Comparative Concept.” SAGE Journals, SAGE Publications, 26 Sept. 2011. 2 Feb. 2017.

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