Islamophobia is a contrived fear or prejudice fomented by the existing Eurocentric and Orientalist global power structure. It is directed at a perceived or real Muslim threat through the maintenance and extension of existing disparities in economic, political, social and cultural relations, while rationalizing the necessity to deploy violence as a tool to achieve “civilizational rehab” of the target communities (Muslim or otherwise). Islamophobia reintroduces and reaffirms a global racial structure through which resource distribution disparities are maintained and extended.
Source: University of California, Berkeley: Center for Race and Gender
NGOs working on the issue
- Washington Peace Center
- https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/religion/reports/2011/08/26/10165/fear-inc/ (Fear, Inc. The Roots of the Islamophobia Network in America)
- http://sabio.library.arizona.edu/search~S9?/Xislamophobia&searchscope=9&SORT=D/Xislamophobia&searchscope=9&SORT=D&SUBKEY=islamophobia/1%2C164%2C164%2CE/frameset&FF=Xislamophobia&searchscope=9&SORT=D&2%2C2%2C (Islamophobia in Cyberspace)
Sources to Consult
- America 2.0 (Photography Campaign)
- [RECENT] Anti-Muslim Rhetoric in Quebec Attack (News Media Report)
- Equal Employment Opportunity Commission vs. Abercrombie & Fitch (U.S. Supreme Court)
- [RECENT] Islamophobia in the 2016 Elections (News Media Report)
- Islamophobia Twitter page (Social Media)
- John L. Esposito: Professor of Religion and International Affairs and of Islamic Studies at Georgetown University (Scholar)
- Map of Islamophobic-Related Attacks in Europe (Map)
- ‘Muslims Bans’ and the (Re)Making of Political Islamophobia (Working SSRN Paper)
- This Artist Uses Her Work To Hold A Mirror Up To American Islamophobia (Art)
- The West, Islam And The Muslim: Islamophobia And Extremism (Government/IGO Reports)
- Understanding Islamophobia in America Syllabus (Course Syllabus – Fairfax Institute)
- What Is Islamophobia and How Much Is There? (Academic Article)
1) “This newest body of work began over the summer of 2016 and is a direct response to the politicized images of American Muslims depicted as a plagued foreign diaspora”.
Source: Bennington, Mark. America 2.0. 2017, Private Collection, New York. 2 Feb. 2017.
2) This article from the Guardian outlines the anti-Muslim rhetoric potentially reponsible for the recent Quebec attack.
Source: Kassam, Ashifa. “‘Islamophobia killed Canadians’: anti-Muslim rhetoric blamed in Québec attack.” The Guardian, The Guardian, 31 Jan. 2017. 2. Feb. 2017.
3) Documentation regarding a U.S. Supreme Court case in which a Muslim was not hired at Abercrombie & Fitch because she wore a hijab.
Source: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Abercrombie & Fitch Stores, Inc. United States Supreme Court. 2015. United States Supreme Court. 2. Feb. 2017.
4) An article outlining the effects of anti-Muslim rhetoric in the 2016 U.S. Presidential election.
Source: Team, Bridge Initiative. “Islamophobia in the 2016 Elections.” Bridge, Georgetown University, 25 Apr. 2015. 2 Feb. 2017.
5) A Twitter profile dedicated discussing Islamophobia-related topics and news stories.
Source: @islamophobia (islamophobia). Twitter. https://twitter.com/islamophobialang=en. 2 Feb. 2017
6) Biography of John L Esposito. Esposito is a “Professor of Religion and International Affairs and of Islamic Studies at Georgetown University”.
Source: “John L Esposito”, Georgetown University. 2 Feb. 2017.
7) A map indicating the locations of Islamophobia-related attacks in Europe.
Source: Centrum, Hirasa, et. al. “Islamophobia attacks in Europe.” Google Maps, Google, 2015. 2 Feb. 2017.
8) Working research paper about the effects if Islamophobia in politics.
Source: Beydoun, Khaled A., ‘Muslims Bans’ and the (Re)Making of Political Islamophobia (March 6, 2016). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2742857. 2 Feb. 2017.
9) Interview with artist that creates works associated with Islamophobia, including an American flag made of hijabs.
Source: Salhani, Justin. “This Artist Uses Her Work To Hold A Mirror Up To American Islamophobia.” ThinkProgress, ThinkProgress, 31 Mar. 2016. 2 Feb. 2017.
10) Research article about the correlation between Islamophobia and Islamic Extremism.
Source: Moten, Abdul R. “The West, Islam And The Muslim: Islamophobia And Extremism.” Southeast Asia Regional Centre for Counter-Terrorism (SEARCCT), Ministry of Foreign Affairs Malaysia. 2 Feb. 2017.
11) Course syllabus for class at the Fairfax Institute in which anti-Muslim rhetoric is discussed and analyzed.
Source: “Understanding Islamophobia in America Syllabus.” The Fairfax Institute, Fairfax Institute. 2 Feb. 2017.
12) Research article analyzing the use of the term Islamophobia and proposing a scientific definition of the term.
Source: Bleich, Erik. “What Is Islamophobia and How Much Is There? Theorizing and Measuring an Emerging Comparative Concept.” SAGE Journals, SAGE Publications, 26 Sept. 2011. 2 Feb. 2017.